Data and Research
IMPORTANT CAUTION ABOUT INTERPRETING TRENDS DATA
BSCC provides various datasets to permit description of trends in critical measures over time, statewide and by county. Diverse patterns among counties reflect not only differences in policy approaches, but other county-specific factors such as the following:
- Income, poverty, unemployment, and crime rates.
- Features of illicit markets and associations such as street drug supply and demand, distribution systems for stolen autos and parts, and street gang allegiances and rivalries.
- Population densities and distributions of populations along geographic, racial, ethnic, age, and urban-rural lines.
- Available county resources, e.g., opening or closing of jail units; hiring or lay-offs of police officers, court-ordered population caps; and arrangements for leasing beds among counties;
The trends may raise useful questions about county-level patterns, but by themselves, do not answer those questions. No inferences about the comparative performance of counties, therefore, are warranted based on trends alone.
The Jail Profile Survey
The Jail Profile Survey (JPS), conducted since the mid-1970’s, is a data collection instrument that gathers responses from counties on local jurisdiction and county jails. This information provides counties a means of tracking changes in their populations and assessing and projecting program and facility needs. Some items are reported monthly, others quarterly; questionnaires are completed and returned to BSCC for review and public posting via the Jail Profile Survey Online Querying database and Jail Population Trends Dashboard.
JPS Online Query:
The published Jail Profile Survey data are reported by local agencies. Local agencies work hard to submit accurate data, but data collection is not uniform throughout the state. Due to local agency-specific data collection limitations some agencies cannot report all data elements. BSCC screens the data and communicates with reporting agencies to ensure accuracy and completeness, but does not conduct investigations or audits of the data or data collection process. The JPS database is a “live database” and represents point in time data. Previously reported data are regularly updated to reflect any revisions received from local agencies.
opens in a new windowJail Profile Survey-Online Querying (Updated September 9, 2021)
For PDF downloads of the “Jail Profile Survey Workbook”, “Rated Capacities of Type II, III, & IV Local Adult Detention Facilities”, and archived Jail Profile Survey Result Reports (quarter and annual), please click here.
Jail Population Trends – PDF (Updated September 9, 2021)
The AB109 Survey
The AB109 Jail Profile Survey is a data collection instrument completed monthly by counties to reflect the impact of AB109, specifically related to offenders sentenced Penal Code Section 1170(h) or released on Post-Release Community Supervision (PRCS) or parole status who have been admitted or detained in local detention facilities. Participating agencies collect relevant data and submit data to BSCC for review and public posting. There are eleven data items collected for the AB109 Jail Profile Survey. Starting July 2021, the AB109 Survey is combined with the JPS monthly report. AB109 data is available through the JPS data query (link in the above section).
The Juvenile Detention Profile Survey
The Juvenile Detention Profile Survey (JDPS) is a data collection instrument that gathers responses from counties on local juvenile detention facilities. This information provides counties a means of assessing and projecting program and facility needs. As with our other surveys, completed questionnaires are returned to the BSCC for review and public posting via the JDPS Online Querying database.
opens in a new windowJuvenile Detention Profile Survey-Online Querying (Updated September 3, 2021)
The published Juvenile Detention Survey data are reported by local agencies. Local agencies work hard to submit accurate data, but data collection is not uniform throughout the state. Due to local agency-specific data collection limitations some agencies cannot report all data elements. BSCC screens the data and communicates with reporting agencies to ensure accuracy and completeness, but does not conduct investigations or audits of the data or data collection process. The JDPS database is a “live database” and represents point in time data. Previously reported data are regularly updated to reflect any revisions received from local agencies.
Juvenile Detention Profile Trends - PDF (Updated September 3, 2021)
Performance Metrics for Community Corrections
“Performance Metrics for Community Corrections,” a report mandated by the Budget Act of 2014, outlines a set of interrelated metrics that are readily available and measurable that can assess how local community corrections systems are functioning. The county-by-county performance metrics identified address reported crime, arrests, supervision, incarceration, and local socioeconomic indicators. The socioeconomic indicators are part of the counties’ unique challenges impacting community corrections systems. To understand how criminal justice policy is working one must also consider the impact of these local conditions on the system. Taken together, these interrelated metrics can provide insight into the functioning of a county’s criminal justice system.
In addition to the report, the Board of State and Community Corrections annually updates Statewide and county-by-county data sets and tables of the performance metrics. The annual updates are designed to help counties, legislators, policymakers, researchers and other interested stakeholders assess how local community corrections systems are functioning. Having a way to analyze performance will allow policymakers to make informed decisions based on what they desire for their communities. The data sets and tables now provide data from 2007 through 2017 and compare changes since 2007.
- Click here to access the full report.
- Click opens in a new windowhere to access Statewide and county-by-county datasets and tables. Graphs and tables displaying trends over time in key measures may be retrieved for each county and for the state as a whole. The data sets and tables now provide data from 2007 through 2019 and compare changes since 2007.
BSCC Realignment Resources
In 2011, Governor Brown signed into law Assembly Bill (AB) 109 and AB 117, hereafter referred to as realignment, which made “fundamental changes to California’s correctional system to stop the costly, ineffective and unsafe "revolving door" of lower-level offenders and parole violators through our state prisons” (excerpt from Governor’s Press Release, April 5, 2011). Realignment:
- shifted responsibility for all sentenced non-violent, non-serious, non-sex offenders from state to local jurisdictions;
- established Postrelease Community Supervision (PRCS);
- changed the parole revocation process;
- tasked Community Corrections Partnerships (CCPs) with planning for the change and implementing the local plans; and
- gave local law enforcement the right and the ability to manage offenders in smarter and cost-effective ways.
For more information, click here
Inmate Sterilization Procedures (SB 1135) Data Collection
As part of SB 1135 and statute 3440(d)2A, the Board of State and Community Corrections is required to collect from California county jails all relevant information regarding the sterilization of inmates. The data will include the number of sterilizations performed, disaggregated by race, age, medical justification, and method of sterilization. It shall be compiled and published annually on the BSCC website.
Fifty four counties responded to our disaggregate data collection survey, please see Table 1 for details. Of the 54 respondents who completed the survey, two counties reported an inmate sterilization procedure was performed during the 2020 calendar year. Please see Table 2 for details.
Prior Data Sets:
The Jail Program Survey
The Jail Program Survey was a collaboration between the Board of State and Community Corrections (BSCC) and a workgroup from the California Jail Programs Association. Information contained within the dashboard was self-reported by participants who completed a 2013 Statewide Survey on the types of programs provided to offenders in California adult correctional facilities.
BSCC Data Dashboard
Explore programs and services in local corrections systems. BSCC Data Dashboard