Data & Research
IMPORTANT CAUTION ABOUT INTERPRETING TRENDS DATA
The dataset presented here assembles counts of jail and prison populations to permit description of trends in these critical measures over time, statewide and by county.
Diverse patterns among counties reflect not only differences in policy approaches, but features of the context such as the following:
- Income, poverty, unemployment, and crime rates.
- Features of illicit markets and associations such as street drug supply and demand, distribution systems for stolen autos and parts, and street gang allegiances and rivalries.
- Population densities and distributions of populations along geographic, racial, ethnic, age, and urban-rural lines.
- Available county resources, e.g., opening or closing of jail units; hiring or lay-offs of police officers, court-ordered population caps; and arrangements for leasing beds among counties;
The metrics provided here may raise useful questions about county-level patterns, but by themselves, do not answer those questions. No inferences about the comparative performance of counties, therefore, are warranted on the basis of these measures alone.
City Law Enforcement Funding - FY 2015-2016
The 2015 Budget Act, (Chapter 11, Statutes of 2015, Item 5227-102-0001) allocates $20 million for front line law enforcement activities. Provision 2, of Item 5227-102-0001, requires city law enforcement agencies that are recipients of this funding to provide data on the number of use of force incidents that result in death or hospitalization (defined as a patient admission to any hospital bed for treatment, regardless of the length of the hospital stay).
Not all city law enforcement agencies received funding, so the data should not be used to make statewide conclusions.
Click here for the 2016 data collection reporting cycles.
Here is a link to the FAQs:
Data is available by reporting agency on the Agency Map and Agency Totals by County tabs. If data is not reported, then it will be displayed as "NR" throughout the dashboard.
Data will continue to be updated as non-reporting agencies submit data.
City Law Enforcement Funding - FY 2016-2017
The 2016 Budget Act, Chapter 23, Statutes of 2016, Item 5227-102-0001 allocated $20 million to city police departments to increase positive outcomes between municipal law enforcement and high risk-populations. The grant required recipients to report data, and the Board of State and Community Corrections to compile and report that data to the Legislature by April 1, 2017.
The Budget Act directed the Department of Finance to work collaboratively with the California Police Chiefs Association to develop an allocation schedule that provided a minimum of 60 percent of the total funding to police departments employing 100 or fewer officers and gave further consideration to jurisdictions with:
- high homeless populations and mental illness rates,
- lack of existing resources for these efforts,
- a desire for co-deployment teams, which consist of peace officers with crisis intervention training and either a county mental health professional or health worker, and
- evidence-based programs that have been proven effective in improving interactions between law enforcement and high-risk populations.
That collaboration resulted in the disbursement of funding to 281 city police departments in 53 counties. Provision 2 allowed those departments to use the funds to supplement, but not supplant, the following:
- Homeless outreach teams
- Crisis Intervention Training for officers
- Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT)
- Resources for drug-endangered children
- Outreach to high-risk youth
- Youth diversion programs
- Gang and violence prevention programs.
Finally, Provision 3 required agencies that receive funding to report the following, as applicable:
- The number of new teams established, or planned to be established
- The type of training and the number of peace officers trained, or planned to be trained
- The type of equipment or resources that were purchased, or planned to be purchased
This report provides an alphabetical list of each agency that received funding, how much funding was received, and the description provided to BSCC from each of those agencies about how they used the funds.
Performance Metrics for Community Corrections
The Board of State and Community Corrections has released its second annual report designed to help counties, legislators, policymakers, researchers and other interested stakeholders assess how local community corrections systems are functioning.
“Performance Metrics for Community Corrections,” mandated by the Budget Act of 2014, outlines interrelated metrics that are readily available and measurable. The county-by-county performance metrics address reported crime, arrests, split sentencing, supervision and incarceration. Taken together, these interrelated metrics can provide insight into the functioning of a county’s criminal justice system. The latest report provides information about status as of mid-2015 and changes since mid-2007. BSCC will update the data tables annually.
Over the past seven years, as California has shifted toward community-oriented corrections, crime rates have continued a long-term downward trend: incarceration rates are down; and probation departments are supervising different people using methods unique to each county.
This report takes into consideration that local socioeconomic indicators are part of the counties’ unique challenges impacting community corrections systems. To understand how criminal justice policy is working one must also consider the impact of these local conditions on the system. Having a way to analyze performance will allow policymakers to make informed decisions based on what they desire for their communities.
In addition to the Metrics report and county-by-county performance metrics, the BSCC has created a Performance Metrics for Community Corrections dashboard. This dashboard is a visual representation of the data presented in the Metrics report and the county-by county-data sets and tables. Each tab on the dashboard has a distinct area graph or time-series graph that uses county, region and date filters to customize the graphs.
- Click here to access the full report.
- Click here to access Statewide and county-by-county datasets and tables. Graphs and tables displaying trends over time in key measures may be retrieved for each county and for the state as a whole. There are three data sets: 2015, 2016, and 2017.
- Click here to access the county profiles that can provide context to the metrics data.
Inmate Sterilization Procedures (SB 1135) Data Collection
As part of SB 1135 and statute 3440(d)2A, the Board of State and Community Corrections is required to collect from California county jails all relevant information regarding the sterilization of inmates. The data will include the number of sterilizations performed, disaggregated by race, age, medical justification, and method of sterilization. It shall be compiled and published annually on the BSCC website.
A two-phase data collection survey was sent to each county. Phase 1 was initial procedural contact made with each county to determine who was the designated county data reporter, how many facilities that county maintains, whether that county has an on-site medical facility that is able to perform sterilization procedures, and where such procedures were performed if not at the county's facility. Phase 2 then allowed the BSCC to determine how many inmate sterilization procedures were performed (if any) outside of the jail of the reporting county. Of those procedures, disaggregated data was then required to be reported on to the BSCC.
Phase 1: Fifty-Eight counties responded to our initial survey. None of the 58 counties performed inmate sterilization procedures at their on-site medical facilities. All respondents indicated that if such procedures needed to be performed, they would occur at a designated local hospital.
Phase 2: Fifty-Six counties responded to our disaggregate data collection survey, please see Table 1 for details. Of the 56 respondents who completed the follow-up survey, two counties reported inmate sterilization procedures having been performed during the 2015 calendar year. Please see the Table 2 for details.
BSCC Realignment Resources
In 2011, Governor Brown signed into law Assembly Bill (AB) 109 and AB 117, hereafter referred to as realignment, which made “fundamental changes to California’s correctional system to stop the costly, ineffective and unsafe "revolving door" of lower-level offenders and parole violators through our state prisons” (excerpt from Governor’s Press Release, April 5, 2011). Realignment:
- shifted responsibility for all sentenced non-violent, non-serious, non-sex offenders from state to local jurisdictions;
- established Postrelease Community Supervision (PRCS);
- changed the parole revocation process;
- tasked Community Corrections Partnerships (CCPs) with planning for the change and implementing the local plans; and
- gave local law enforcement the right and the ability to manage offenders in smarter and cost-effective ways.
For more information, click here
The Jail Profile Survey
The Jail Profile Survey, conducted since the mid-1970’s, is a data collection instrument that gathers responses from counties on local jurisdiction and county jails. This information provides counties a means of tracking changes in their populations and assessing and projecting program and facility needs. Some items are reported monthly, others quarterly; questionnaires are completed and returned to BSCC for review and public posting via the Jail Population Trends Dashboard and Jail Profile Survey Online Querying database.
For PDF downloads of the “Jail Profile Survey Workbook”, “Rated Capacities of Type II, III, & IV Local Adult Detention Facilities (December 2006- March 2014)”, and “Jail Profile-2013 3rd Quarter Survey Profile Results” (From 2006 1st Quarter Survey to 2013 3rd Quarter Survey), please click here.
The Jail Program Survey
The Jail Program Survey was a collaboration between the Board of State and Community Corrections (BSCC) and a workgroup from the California Jail Programs Association. Information contained within the dashboard was self-reported by participants who completed a 2013 Statewide Survey on the types of programs provided to offenders in California adult correctional facilities.
The AB109 Survey
The AB109 Jail Profile Survey is a data collection instrument completed monthly by counties to reflect the impact of AB109, specifically related to offenders sentenced Penal Code Section 1170(h) or released on Post-Release Community Supervision (PRCS) or parole status who have been admitted or detained in local detention facilities. Participating agencies collect relevant data and submit completed questionnaires to BSCC for review and public posting via the Jail Population Trends Dashboard. There are eleven items listed on the AB109 Jail Profile Survey Monthly Report Form.
The Juvenile Detention Survey
The Juvenile Detention Profile Survey is a data collection instrument that gathers responses from counties on local juvenile detention facilities. This information provides counties a means of assessing and projecting program and facility needs. There are 24 items reported monthly, and 13 quarterly. As with our other surveys, completed questionnaires are returned to the BSCC for review and public posting via the Jail Population Trends Dashboard and Jail Profile Survey Online Querying database.